Environmental Impacts

Ecosystems are resilient when rich biodiversity and sustained populations of species fill every ecological niche. Today the earth faces a biodiversity crisis, with living biomass decreasing. Human activities are causing the Sixth Mass Extinction, at a rate that defies evolutionary adaptation.1

Missing a pollutant that is contributing to plummeting populations and shifts in flora and fauna could undermine successful responses. In addition to effects of pesticides, greenhouse gases creating climate chaos, and light pollution, “wireless” pulsed radiofrequency and low frequency radiation for telecommunications is rapidly increasing—by orders of magnitude. It is beamed across landscapes, and from and to satellites. A November 2022 scientific report on an ecosystem approach to effects on wildlife and plants2 follows up on decades of research and hundreds of research reports.3,4,5

Disruption of biochemistry and activation of cellular receptors6 may lead a range of biological effects. For example, research shows that living in the vicinity of mobile base stations,7 exposures of laboratory animals 8 and cell culture experiments 9 may result in increased DNA damage and oxidative stress, changes in biochemical and hematological (blood) profiles and altered cellular morphology. These observations precede numerous downstream effects on fertility, development, acute and chronic conditions and cancers.

The following figure illustrates biological effects on biota that scientists have reported at levels thousands of times lower than human exposure guideline limits. There is no environmental exposure limit to protect biota. (Modified Figure 2 from “Protect the Birds, Bees and Trees.“)

Bioeffects of exposure to wireless radiation that are specific to classes of species may be accessed below.

More Specific Science:

Bees & Other Insects

Wireless radiation impacts insect growth and behavior, and population levels. Impaired navigation could affect foraging, return to hives, and migration.


Birds’ navigation and reproductive success are impacted by “wireless” radiation. They have abandoned areas following installation of towers.


“Wireless” radiation affects plant growth and biochemistry. Time-line tree photos show leaf margin bleaching then loss and die-back, with higher exposure.

Beyond Birds, Bees & Trees

Research finds effects on other species, such as amphibians, mammals and microbes. Living underground be protective.


1.         Cowie RH, Bouchet P, Fontaine B. The Sixth Mass Extinction: fact, fiction or speculation? Biological Reviews. 2021. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/brv.12816

2.         Levitt BB, Lai HC, Manville AM. Low-level EMF effects on wildlife and plants: What research tells us about an ecosystem approach. Frontiers in Public Health. 2022 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2022.1000840

3.         Levitt BB, Lai HC, Manville AM. Effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna, part 1. Rising ambient EMF levels in the environment. Reviews on Environmental Health. 2021 May 27. http://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2021-0026/html

4.         Levitt BB, Lai HC, Manville AM. Effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna, Part 2 impacts: how species interact with natural and man-made EMF. Reviews on Environmental Health. 2021 Jul 8; http://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2021-0050/html

5.         Levitt BB, Lai HC, Manville AM. Effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna, Part 3. Exposure standards, public policy, laws, and future directions. Reviews on Environmental Health. 2021 Sep 27; http://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2021-0083/html

6.         Ruigrok HJ, Arnaud-Cormos D, Hurtier A, Poque E, Gannes FP de, Ruffié G, et al. Activation of the TRPV1 Thermoreceptor Induced by Modulated or Unmodulated 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Field Exposure. rare. 2017 Oct;189(1):95–103. http://bioone.org/journals/radiation-research/volume-189/issue-1/RR14877.1/Activation-of-the-TRPV1-Thermoreceptor-Induced-by-Modulated-or-Unmodulated/10.1667/RR14877.1.full

7.         Zothansiama, Zosangzuali M, Lalramdinpuii M, Jagetia GC. Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2017 Jul 3;36(3):295–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15368378.2017.1350584

8.         Kostoff RN, Lau CGY. Modified Health Effects of Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Combined with Other Agents Reported in the Biomedical Literature. In: Geddes CD, editor. Microwave Effects on DNA and Proteins. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017. p. 97–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50289-2_4

9.         Manna D, Ghosh R. Effect of radiofrequency radiation in cultured mammalian cells: A review. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2016 Jul 2;35(3):265–301. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2015.1092158

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