Effects of “wireless” radio- and low frequency radiation from telecommunications have been noted in other species. So far in this project, we have not included information on effects on humans, or the considerable literature on laboratory animal testing, where there is substantial evidence of impacts with exposure levels comparable to and lower than ambient levels that may be experienced.
Direct real-world effects need to be examined, while keeping in mind that levels of radiation are increasing and becoming more complex with increasing complexities and density of telecommunications infrastructure.
A good example is that in 2006 Balmori stated, “Electromagnetic pollution (in the microwave and in the radiofrequency range) is a possible cause for deformations and decline of some amphibian populations” in The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on the amphibian decline: Is this an important piece of the puzzle? In 2010 Balmori then published Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory. He raised 70 tadpoles from eggs in each of two identical tanks exposed to cellular antennas in a city. Tadpoles developed normally with 4.5% mortality in the tank that was shielded in a “Faraday cage” from the radiation. In the unshielded tank, however, “low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%)” was observed.
Another interesting avenue of research that has very recently gained momentum has been effects on microbes, where anti-microbial resistance appears to be accelerated with exposure to microwave/radiofrequency radiation. The following are some of those reports.
Mortazavi, S. M. J., Taheri, M., Paknahad, M., & Khandadash, S. (2022). Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Mobile Phones and Wi-Fi Router on the Growth Rate and Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis to Antibiotics. Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering, 12(4), 387–394.
Movahedi, M. M., Nouri, F., Tavakoli Golpaygani, A., Ataee, L., Amani, S., & Taheri, M. (2019). Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus after Exposure to Electromagnetic Waves Emitted from Mobile Phone Simulator. Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering, 9(6), 637–646.
I H., S.-S., F A., J., H H., Y., & M E., M. (2019). Evaluation of Wi-Fi Radiation Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility, Metabolic Activity and Biofilm Formation by Escherichia Coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermis. Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering, 9(5), 579–586.
Nakouti, I., Hobbs, G., Teethaisong, Y., & Phipps, D. (2017). A demonstration of athermal effects of continuous microwave irradiation on the growth and antibiotic sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Biotechnology Progress, 33(1), 37–44.
Pegios, A., Kavvadas, D., Ζarras, K., Mpani, K., Soukiouroglou, P., Charalampidou, S., Vagdatli, E., & Papamitsou, T. (2022). The Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Transmitted from Routers on Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Pathogens. Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering, 12(4), 327–338.
Taheri, M., Mortazavi, S. M. J., Moradi, M., Mansouri, S., Hatam, G. R., & Nouri, F. (2017). Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. Dose-Response: A Publication of International Hormesis Society, 15(1), 1559325816688527.
Torgomyan, H., & Trchounian, A. (2012). Escherichia coli membrane-associated energy-dependent processes and sensitivity toward antibiotics changes as responses to low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 62(3), 451–461.